The type of analysis requested by the doctor, routine urine and stool specimens should be collected in the morning. Since a freshly passed specimen facilitates more accurate analysis, specimens should be taken to the laboratory as soon as possible.

In some hospitals, a disposable cellophane diaper is used to collect Urine specimens from infants and children. The cellophane diaper is applied instead of the regular diaper, with the point of the diaper between the infant’s legs. The head of the crib mattress should be elevated in Fowler’s position to facilitate drainage of Urine to the collection portion of the diaper. When the Urine specimen has been passed, the diaper is removed, the point cut with scissors and the Urine transferred to a specimen bottle.

Use of the plastic disposable Urine collector
The type of plastic disposable Urine collector may be affixed to the perineal region to facilitate the collection of a urine specimen. Peel off the gummed backing and place the adhesive portion firmly against the perineum of the infant. The adhesive will adhere to the skin. Place the infant in Fowler’s position to aid the flow of Urine by gravity. Check the bag frequently until the desired amount of Urine is obtained. Remove the bag peeling the adhesive gently from the skin. Transfer the specimen to a Urine bottle, label, and send it to the laboratory.

Test tube method of collecting Urine
To use a test tube to collect Urine, line the edges of the test tube with adhesive tape. Insert the penis in the tube and secure the adhesive tape to the pubis. The infant’s legs should be restrained for safety. Place the infant in Fowler’s position to aid the flow of Urine by gravity. Remove the test tube by peeling the adhesive from the skin. Transfer the Urine to a specimen bottle, label it and sent it to the laboratory. This method should be used only when plastic disposable urine collectors are not available.

Suprapubic aspiration of Urine
Needle aspiration of Urine is used when an adequate clean Urine specimen is desired and other methods have failed. Some pediatricians prefer a suprapublic needle aspiration to a catheterization procedure. The bladder tap provides unequivocal information concerning the bacteriology of the Urine.

Nursing responsibilities
� The procedure should be performed at least one hour after the patient has voided. A sterile technique is used.
� The child lies supine with the legs held in a froglike position to compress the infant’s urethra. (In the make infant, this is accomplished by pressure on the penis; in the female, by pressure upward through the rectum). Compression of the Urethra serves to prevent Urination during the procedure.
� The suprapubic area is cleansed with iodine and alcohol
� A 20cc syringe, with a 20 gauge one and half inch needle attached, is used by the doctor to pierce the abdominal wall approximately 1 to 2 inches above the symphysis pubis.
� The aspirated Urine is placed in a sterile tube, labeled and sent to the laboratory
� No dressing is required following the procedure.

The nurse should observe the child for signs of hematuria following the procedure and report positive findings to the doctor.

Measuring hourly Urine Output
When the doctor requests an accurate hourly recording of Urine output, and a catheter is not inserted, the nurse must devise a method to collect all Urine passed. A plastic diaper may be used, with the collecting point of the diaper affixed to drainage tubing. In male infants, a finger 元朗通渠  cot may be placed over the penis (with a hole cut in the end of the finger cot) and the end portion affixed to drainage tubing. The drainage tubing should be secured to the side of the bed so that looping of the siatal end is avoided and drainage of Urine by gravity is promoted. The distal end of the drainage tubing may empty into a clibrated drainage bag which is secured to the bed frame.

Renal system disorders syndromes
1. Disuria syndrome
2. painful syndrome
3. Urinary syndrome
4. Edemas syndrome
5. Hypertension syndrome
6. Hypotension syndrome
7. intoxication syndrome
8. Nephrotic syndrome
9. Nephrytic syndrome
10. chronic renal failure
11. Cardiovascular system dysfunction syndrome
12. Anemic syndrome
13. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome
14. Enuresis (Urinary incontinence) syndrome

Collection of Urine is a very important, if not the main step to diagnosing Kidney defects, as Urine is metabolized by the Kidney itself, renal disorders could be determined by this technique.


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